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North Carolina judge vacates Freedom Riders’ conviction

North Carolina freedom riders conviction vacated by Orange County judge

The freedom riders had the courage to fight for what they thought was right and as a result, were beaten and arrested. 

Legendary civil rights leader Bayard Rustin and three other men were sentenced to work on a chain gang in North Carolina after they launched the first of the “freedom rides” to challenge Jim Crow laws.  

More than seven decades later, the four had their sentences posthumously vacated Friday. 

Noting that they were gathered in the same second-story courtroom in the historic courthouse where the men were initially sentenced, Superior Court Judge Allen Baddour, presided over the special session that included about 100 people gathered in the gallery. 

Baddour at one point paused to gather himself after becoming emotional. “We failed their cause and we failed to deliver justice in our community,” Baddour said. “And for that, I apologize. So we’re doing this today to right a wrong, in public, and on the record.”

Renee Price, chair of the Orange County Board of Commissioners, told the audience that the special session resulted from research by Baddour and his staff that was launched after the previous anniversary of the sentencing. In a statement, Price said, “While this judicial action is taking place 75 years after the injustice occurred, never should we falter in examining past wrongs, seeking reparation, and lifting those heavy burdens from our hearts and minds so that future generations may know justice.” 

On April 9, 1947, a group of eight white men and eight Black men began the first “freedom ride” to challenge laws that mandated segregation on buses in defiance of the 1946 U.S. Supreme Court Morgan v. Virginia ruling declaring segregation on interstate travel unconstitutional. 

The men boarded buses in Washington, D.C., setting out on a two-week route that included stops in Durham, Chapel Hill, and Greensboro, North Carolina. As the riders attempted to board the bus in Chapel Hill, several of them were removed by force and attacked by a group of angry cab drivers. 

Four of the Freedom Riders — Andrew Johnson, James Felmet, Bayard Rustin, and Igal Roodenko — were arrested and charged with disorderly conduct for refusing to move from the front of the bus. 

The four men were convicted and sentenced to serve on a chain gang. Rustin later published writings about being imprisoned. Rustin later published writings about being imprisoned and subjected to hard labor for taking part in the first freedom ride, which was also known as the Journey of Reconciliation.

“We are here, 75 years later, to address an injustice and henceforth to correct the narrative regarding the Journey of Reconciliation and that segment of American history,” Price said.

Five years before the Chapel Hill incident, Rustin was beaten by police officers in Nashville, Tennessee, and taken to jail after refusing to move to the back of a bus he had

ridden from Louisville, Kentucky. A pioneer of the civil rights movement, Rustin was an adviser to the late Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and was instrumental in organizing the March on Washington in 1963.

Dr. Adriane Lentz-Smith, an associate professor and associate chair in the department of history at Duke University, described Rustin as “a shepherd and a shaper of the 1960s movement.” 

Prior to this event, five District Court judges marked the 75th anniversary of the arrests of Rustin and the three other men in Chapel Hill last month by reading a statement of apology.

“The Orange County Court was on the wrong side of the law in May 1947, and it was on the wrong side of history,” the statement read. “Today, we stand before our community on behalf of all five District Court Judges for Orange and Chatham Counties and accept the responsibility entrusted to us to do our part to eliminate racial disparities in our justice system.”


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